Origin and Purpose
The Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever was developed in Nova Scotia in the
early 19th century to toll (or lure) and retrieve waterfowl. The tolling
dog runs, jumps, and plays along the shoreline in full view of a flock of
ducks, occasionally disappearing from sight and then quickly reappearing,
aided by the hidden hunter, who throws small sticks or a ball for the dog.
The dog's playful actions lure the curious ducks within gunshot range. The
dog is then sent to retrieve the downed bird.
The Toller is a medium-sized, powerful, compact, balanced, well-muscled dog;
medium to heavy in bone, with a high degree of agility, alertness, and
determination. Many Tollers have a slightly sad expression until they go
to work, when their aspect changes to intense concentration and excitement.
At work, the dog has a speeding, rushing action, with the head carried out
almost level with the back and heavily-feathered tail in constant motion.
The Toller is highly intelligent, easy to train, and has great endurance.
A strong and able swimmer, he is a natural and tenacious retriever on land
and from water, setting himself for springy action the moment the slightest
indication is given that retrieving is required. His strong retrieving
desire and playfulness are qualities essential to his tolling ability.
Loving and playful to his family, he can be reserved with strangers without
being aggressive or overly shy. Aggression is not to be tolerated.
Ideal height for males over 18 months is 19-20 inches (48-51 cm); females
over 18 months 18-19 inches (45-48 cm). One inch (3 cm) over or under ideal
height is allowed. Weight should be in proportion to the height and bone of
the dog guidelines: 45-51 lb. (20-23 kg) for adult males; bitches 37-43 lb.
Coat and Colour
The Toller was bred to retrieve from icy waters and must have a water-repellent
double coat of medium length and softness with a softer, dense undercoat.
The coat may have a slight wave on the back, but is otherwise straight.
Some winter coats may form a long, loose curl at the throat. Featherings
are soft at the throat, behind the ears and at the back of the thighs, and
forelegs are moderately feathered. While neatening of the ears and feet is
permitted, the Toller should always appear natural. Colour is various shades
of red or orange with lighter featherings and underside of tail, and usually
at least one of the following white markings - tip of tail, feet (not
exceeding beyond the pasterns), chest, and blaze. A dog of otherwise high
quality is not to be penalized for lack of white. The pigment of the nose,
lips and eye rims should match, and be flesh-coloured, blending with coat,
or be black.
Skull: the head, which should be in proportion to the body size, is clean-cut
and slightly wedge-shaped when viewed from above. The broad skull is only
slightly rounded, the occiput not prominent and the cheeks flat. Length from
occiput to stop should roughly equal that of stop to tip of nose. The stop is
moderate. Muzzle: tapers in a clean line from stop to nose, with the lower
jaw strong but not prominent. The underline of the muzzle runs almost in a
straight line from the corner of the lip to the corner of the jawbone, with
depth at the stop being greater than at the nose. Hair on the muzzle is short
and fine. Whiskers are not removed. Nose tapers from bridge to tip, with
nostrils well open. Colour should blend with that of the coat or be black.
Mouth: lips fit fairly tightly, forming a gentle curve in profile, with no
heaviness in flews. The correct bite is tight scissors, full dentition is
required. Overshot by more than 1/8 inch, undershot and wry mouth are highly
undesirable. Jaws are strong enough to carry a sizable bird, and softness
in mouth is essential. Eyes set well apart, almond-shaped, medium-sized.
Colour, amber to brown. Expression is friendly, alert and intelligent.
Flesh around the eyes should be the same colour as the lips. Ears triangular,
rounded at the tips, medium-sized and carried in a dropped fashion.
They are set high and well back on the skull, with the base held very
slightly erect so that the edge of the ear is carried to the side of the
head. They are well feathered at and behind the fold, with short hair at
Slightly arched, strongly muscled and well set-on, of medium length, with no
indication of throatiness.
Shoulders should be muscular, with the blade well laid back and well laid on
giving good withers sloping into the short back. The blade and upper arm are
roughly equal in length with the upper arm well angled back under the body.
Elbows should be close to the body, turning neither in nor out, working
cleanly and evenly. The forelegs should appear as parallel columns, straight
and strong in bone. The pasterns are strong and slightly sloping.
The strongly-webbed feet are tight and round, with well-arched toes,
thick pads and strong nails, and are in proportion to the size of the dog.
Dewclaws may be removed.
Deep-chested with good spring of rib, brisket reaching to the elbow. The
back is short and straight, the topline level, the loins strong and muscular.
The ribs are well-sprung, neither barrel-shaped nor flat. Tuck-up is moderate.
Muscular, broad, and square in appearance. Rear and front angulation should
be in balance. Thighs are very muscular, upper and lower sections being
approximately equal in length. Stifles are well bent and hocks well let
down, turning neither in nor out. Dewclaws must not be present.
Following the natural very slight slope of the croup, broad at the base,
luxuriant and heavily feathered, with the last vertebra reaching at least
to the hock. The tail may be carried below the level of the back except
when the dog is alert when it curves high over, though not touching the back.
The Toller combines an impression of power with a springy, jaunty gait,
showing good reach in front and a strong driving rear. Feet should turn
neither in nor out and the legs travel in a straight line. As speed
increases, the dog should single-track, topline remaining level, and
covering ground with economy of movement.
(To be penalized according to degree)
- Dogs more than 1 inch (3 cm) over or under ideal height.
- Overshot bite.
- Tail too short, kinked or curled over touching the back.
- Lack of substance in adult dog.
- Dish or down-faced.
- Abrupt stop.
- Large, round eyes.
- Nose, eye rims, and eyes not of prescribed colour.
- Bright pink nose.
- Splayed or paper feet, down in pasterns.
- Open coat.
- Roached, sway back, slack loins.
- Tail carried below level of back when dog gaiting.
- Any departure from the foregoing points should be
considered a fault and penalized according to the
degree of deviation.
- White on shoulders, around ears, on back of neck,
across back or flanks.
- Silvery coat, grey in coat, black areas in coat.
- Lack of webbing.
- Undershot bite, wry mouth.
- In adult classes, any shyness.
- Butterfly nose.
- Overshot by more than 1/8 inch.
- Any colour other than red or orange shades.